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COKING COAL : These coals, when heated in the absence of air, form coherent beads, free from volatiles, with strong and porous mass, called coke.

  • These have coking properties
  • Mainly used in steel making and metallurgical industries
  • Also used for hard coke manufacturing

SEMI COKING COAL : These coals, when heated in the absence of air, form coherent beads not strong enough to be directly fed into the blast furnace. Such coals are blended with coking coal in adequate proportion to make coke.

  • These have comparatively less coking properties than coking coal
  • Mainly used as blend-able coal in steel making, merchant coke manufacturing and other metallurgical industries

NLW COKING COAL : These coals are having inferior coking properties to the medium coking coal but produce weak coke. They are, however, useful for production of metallurgical coke in blends with matching metallurgical coals.

NON-COKING COAL : These are coals without coking properties.

  • Mainly used as thermal grade coal for power generation
  • Also used for cement, fertilizer, glass, ceramic, paper, chemical and brick manufacturing, and for other heating purposes

HARD COAL : Hard coke is formed from coking / semi-coking coal through the process of carbonisation.

  • Mainly used in metallurgical industries
  • Also used in industrial plants utilising furnaces

WASHED AND BENEFICIATED COAL : These coals have undergone the process of coal washing or coal beneficiation, resulting in value addition of coal due to reduction in ash percentage.

  • Used in manufacturing of hard coke for steel making
  • Beneficiated and washed non-coking coal is used mainly for power generation
  • Beneficiated non-coking coal is used by cement, sponge iron and other industrial plants

MIDDLINGS : Middlings are by-products of the three stage coal washing / beneficiation process, as a fraction of feed raw coal.

  • Used for power generation
  • Also used by domestic fuel plants, brick manufacturing units, cement plants, industrial plants, etc.

REJECTS : Rejects are the products of coal beneficiation process after separation of cleans and / or middlings, as a fraction of feed raw coal.

  • Used for Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) Boilers for power generation, road repairs, briquette (domestic fuel) making, land filling, etc.

CIL COKE / LTC COKE : CIL Coke / LTC Coke is a smokeless, environment friendly product of the Dankuni Coal Complex, obtained through low temperature carbonisation.

  • Used in furnaces and kilns of industrial units
  • Also used as domestic fuel by halwais, hotels, etc.

COAL FINES / COKE FINES : These are the screened fractions of feed raw coal and LTC coke / CIL Coke respectively, obtained from the Dankuni Coal Complex and other coke oven plants.

  • Used in industrial furnaces as well as for domestic purposes

TAR / HEAVY OIL / LIGHT OIL / SOFT PITCH : These are products from Dankuni Coal Complex using low temperature carbonisation of non-coking coal in vertical retorts.

  • Used in furnaces and boilers of industrial plants as well as power houses, oil, dye, pharmaceutical industries, etc.
GRADATION OF COAL
A. COKING COAL
Grade Parameter
Steel I Ash not exceeding 15%
Steel II Ash exceeding 15% but not exceeding 18 %
Washery I Ash exceeding 18% but not exceeding 21 %
Washery II Ash exceeding 21% but not exceeding 24 %
Washery III Ash exceeding 24% but not exceeding 28 %
Washery IV Ash exceeding 28% but not exceeding 35 %
B. SEMI COKING COAL
Grade Parameter
Semi Coking I Ash + moisture not exceeding 19 %
Semi Coking II Ash + moisture exceeding 19 % but not exceeding 24 %
C. NON-COKING COAL
Grade Gross Calorific Value bands for Non-Coking Coals
(In Kilo Calories/Kilogram)
G1 Above 7000
G2 6701 to 7000
G3 6401 to 6700
G4 6101 to 6400
G5 5801 to 6100
G6 5501 to 5800
G7 5201 to 5500
G8 4901 to 5200
G9 4601 to 4900
G10 4301 to 4600
G11 4001 to 4300
G12 3701 to 4000
G13 3401 to 3700
G14 3101 to 3400
G15 2801 to 3100
G16 2501 to 2800
G17 2201 to 2500
D. HARD COKE
Grade Ash %
By Product Premium Not exceeding 25 %
By Product Ordinary Exceeding 25 % but not exceeding 30 %
Beehive Premium Not exceeding 27 %
Beehive Superior Exceeding 27 % but not exceeding 31 %
Beehive Ordinary Exceeding 31 % but not exceeding 36 %
SUITABILITY OF COAL
E. HARD COKE
Industry Type of Coal Required
Steel making Coking and semi-coking coal, direct feed and washed; blendable coal; low ash % Assam and Ranigunj coal
Steel making, sponge iron industry Non-coking coal of high Initial Deformation Temperature (IDT) (>1200 degrees Celcius)
Cokeries / coke oven plants Coking and semi-coking coal
Briquette making / domestic fuel making Semi-coking and non-coking coal; middling & rejects of washeries
Special Smokeless Fuel (SSF) Semi-coking coal of Coking Index 8 10
Power sector Non-coking coal; middlings of coking coal washeries; washed coal of non-coking coal washeries
Cement sector Non-coking coal; middlings of coking coal washeries
Glass and potteries Long Flame non-coking coal
Cast iron castings Hard coke
Steel castings Non-coking coal
Bricks Non-coking coal; middlings of coking coal washeries
Old boilers Superior grades of non-coking coal
Halwais, domestic use, hotels, etc. Non-coking coal; CIL Coke / LTC Coke      ///